What is Bio-Fuel?
Bio-fuel is a type of fuel, derived from organic carbon stock and whose energy is eco-friendly. This fuel is derived by converting biomass. These are solid biomass, some edible oils, and various biogases. Awareness of biofuels are raising day by day, not just because of oil price hike, but nowadays people are much more conscious about greenhouse gas emissions from fuels extracted naturally and they need energy security for them and for their coming generations. These kinds of green house gasses like CO2, carbon monoxide, etc. are destroying our ozone layers, thereby temperature of earth are growing day by day.
How Bio-Fuel is produced!
Furthermore, bio-ethanol usually is an alcohol, which is prepared through fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates extracted from sugar, or starch extracted from crops like corns, sugarcane naming a few. Bio-ethanol is extracted too from cellulose biomass. Cellulose biomass is extracted from non-food sources such as trees, plants, herbs, grasses etc. Bio-diesel, another name of bio-fuel, is made from the oils extracted from vegetables and animal fats. Pure biodiesel is used as a fuel for vehicles. However, usually it is used as an additive to diesel to reduce cost, emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons from vehicles, which runs on usual diesel. The biodiesel manufactured through trans-esterification from oils and or fats are the common biofuels that we use. Alcohol is being manufactured biologically with presence of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of all kinds of sugar, starchy foods, or even cellulose, of which most common is ethanol, propanol, and butanol. Butanol or Biogasoline could be an immediate replacement of gasoline, simply because it can be used in a gasoline engine without making any modification.
Furthermore, ethanol is used as most common biofuel. Alcohol fuels are produced by brew of sugars. This is a derivative of wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses, potato, fruit waste and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic beverages can be made. There are different ethanol production techniques In Enzyme_ digestion technique sugars are obtained from stored starches. Fermentation of the sugar is another process. There are processes like distillation and drying too. The distillation practice requires momentous energy input for heat generation. For this energy untenable natural gas, fossil fuel, or biogas are used. Squander of sugar cane is used to extract its juices, and this can also used for energy production.
Biofuel consists of ‘Fatty Acid Methyl Esters’ called FAME. Resource for biodiesel are animal fats, edible oils, soya seed, rapeseed, jatropha, mahua seed, mustard, flax, sunflower seed, palm oil, hemp, residue of crops, algae and different herbs containing carbohydrates. These are called biomass. These can be converted directly into ethanol. Pure biodiesel is called B100. It is the diesel fuel with lowest emission of harmful substances.
Benefit of biofuel
1. Ethanol is used as a fuel for bio-ethanol fireplaces. This fireplace does not necessitate a chimney and are smolder less. Fireplace runs by bio-ethanol are extremely useful for modern apartments.
2. Ethanol can be used in petrol engines in lieu of gasoline. It could be mixed with gasoline at any ratio. Many people use 15% bio-ethanol with petroleum/gasoline with their existing car petrol engines.
3. An advantage of CH3CH2OH i.e., ethanol is, it has an elevated octane rating comparing ethanol-free gasoline for amplified thermal competence. In high altitude where air density is less, mix of gasoline and ethanol reduces air pollution through emissions.
4. Biodiesel is another derivative of biofuel. It can be used with usual diesel engine can be mixed in any ratio.
5. Biodiesel is safe to handle and safe to transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar. It is 10 times less noxious than table salt. It has a high flash point of about 300 Deg. F (148 Deg. C) than petroleum diesel fuel whose flash point is 125 Deg. F (52 Deg. C).
6. Biodiesel or biofuel is cost effective.
7. Biofuel augments engine performance.
8. It appreciably trims down noxious smoke emanation
9. It helps to protect the ozone level. It keeps the air safe from polluting by reducing release of carbon monoxide and other unsafe emissions.
10. Biofuels can be produced with minimum investment.
11. If it is produced locally, this can increase job opportunity.
12. It is economical and of course an alternative to the fossil fuel.